Home and family first aid procedures information

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There are some temperature related ailments such as frost bite,snow blindness,hypothermia,sun burn,sun stroke,heat stroke etc...Here let us study some temperature related home and family first aid procedures which will be useful and informative.

The aim of the person giving first aid should be to seek suitable genuine medical aid after completing the first aid steps.He should not come to any conclusion or administer any unauthorized medication.

home and family first aid procedures:TEMPERATURE SPECIFIC

1.FROST BITE

When parts of body are subjected to prolonged exposure to intense cold atmosphere, frost bite occurs.Normally the affected parts are generally exposed such as nose,ears,chin,hands and feet.

There are two types of frost bite

a) superficial skin freeze

b) the deep skin tissues freeze.

If frost bite is not treated, gangrene might set in resulting in danger to life itself.

The symptoms are the onset of numbness and pricking pain in the affected parts.The skin color changes to blue and the skin becomes stiff and hard.Movement becomes difficult when foot is affected.

The treatment steps are

a)shift the affected person to a warm shelter and if possible place the affected part in warm water and rewarm it.

b)If necessary remove the cold clothing and change to warm clothing.

c)Admit the patient to hospital.

1.DO NOT RUB OR MASSAGE THE AFFECTED PART BY SNOW.

2.DO NOT REWARM BY DRY HEAT RADIATION.

3.DO NOT BREAK BLISTERS OR APPLY CREAM OR OINTMENT IN THE AFFECTED AREA.

4.DO NOT LET THE PATIENT WALK USING THE AFFECTED FOOT.

5.DO NOT ASSUME THE PATIENT IS DEAD EVEN IF THERE ARE NO PULSE.

2.SNOW BLINDNESS

When eyes are subjected to prolonged exposure to the glare of reflected sun light on snow,the cornea of the eye is affected and snow blindness occurs.The condition can be painful.The symptoms are

a)intense pain in the eyes

b)watery eyes

c)persistent uncomfortable feeling of presence of sand in the eye.

The treatment is washing of eyes in water and covering of eyes for sometime for the eyes to recover.Admit the person to hospital.

3.HYPOTHERMIA

Hypothermia is a condition wherein the body loses temperature rapidly unable to compensate the lost heat due to prolonged immersion in water or wearing of wet clothes or high altitude cold and wet low temperature atmosphere exposure.When the body's temperature falls below 35 degrees centigrade hypothermia occurs.If the body's temperature falls below 25 degrees recovery becomes difficult.

The symptoms are

a) slowing of pulse

b)feeling extremely cold

c) intense shivering

d) pale skin

e) slurred speech f)restlessness and shock

g)difficulty in breathing.

The treatment steps are

a)shift the patient to a warm dry place,remove the wet clothes and change to warm clothing

b)give hot drinks

c) check for frost bites d) Admit to hospital.

NEVER ASSUME THAT THE PERSON IS DEAD EVEN IF THERE IS NO PULSE OR HEART BEAT.

4.SUN BURN

When the body is exposed to prolonged sun rays sun burn occurs which might vary from mild superficial burn to painful blisters.The symptoms are

a) the affected part of the skin becomes hot

b)affected part of the skin becomes red

c) painful swelling

d) itching at the affected spot.

The treatment steps are

a)shift the person to a cool surroundings

b) give plenty of cold water to drink

c) give cold water sponge

d) admit the person to hospital.

DO NOT TRY TO BREAK THE BLISTERS IF ANY.

5.HEAT EXHAUSTION

When the body is subjected to prolonged heavy sweating in hot and humid climates,heat exhaustion occurs when the body is incapable of replacing lost salts and water.

The symptoms are

a) headache and nausea

b) total weakness and exhaustion

c) muscle cramps

The treatment steps are

a)shift the person to a cool place

b) give plenty of cool water mixed with a pinch of salt

c) admit the patient to hospital.

6. HEAT STROKE

In high temperature hot and humid climate zones,when the body is unable to control it's temperature by sweating due to prolonged exposure to heat and humidity,heat stroke occurs.

The symptoms are

a)no sweating

b) headache

c) nausea and vomiting

d)muscle cramps

e)restlessness

The treatment steps are

a)shift the person to a cool place

b) cool the body with cold water sponge and replace the lost body fluids by giving cold water mixed with salt

c) admit the person to a hospital.

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