Home and family first aid procedures info

The knowledge about home and family first aid procedures is important as it may save lives in emergencies we may face in day to day life.Any lay person can perform first aid.The term first aid as the term suggests is self explanatory.First aid is the initial care provided to the affected person until the suitable and definitive medical care is provided.

First aid involves a series of simple steps which can be performed by a lay person and has the potential to save lives.In short,first aid can be the difference between life and death.

Home and family first aid procedures:POISONING

Poisoning can occur in many forms.Poisons are harmful substances which when taken in sufficient quantities has the potential to cause death immediately or after some time depending on the potency of the poison.Poisoning may occur due to accidental or willful ingestion of poison.It may occur due swallowing,inhaling,absorption through skin,injection through flesh etc.....Swallowed poisons may result in vomiting,diarrhoea and pain.Corrosive poisons may cause burning of mouth,throat,food passage and stomach etc...some poisons work through blood stream to attack breathing system,nervous system,and other vital body systems.Inhalation of poisonous fumes and gases may cause breathing problems,choking,irritation of eyes.

Do not induce vomiting if the poison is petroleum based or acid and alkali based such as turpentine,paint thinner,petrol ,polish,toilet cleaners,bleachers,ammonia.Administer the antidote mentioned in the brochure of the poisonous substance if known.

FOOD POISONING:

When bacteria contaminated food is consumed,food poisoning occurs.The names of the most common bacterias are salmonella and staphylococci.The bacteria salmonellae multiplies in bowels to cause dysentery and is highly infectious.It can spread through poor personal hygiene.The bacteria staphylococci multiplies in unprotected and unhygienic food and produces a toxic substance which makes the food poisonous.

The symptoms of food poisoning occurs within one or two hours or sometimes one or two days after consuming the contaminated food.The symptoms are nausea and vomiting,stomach pain,dysentery and signs of shock.Sometimes the affected person has fever and headache.

The treatment is to induce vomiting to remove the contaminated food from the stomach.A vomit sample must be collected for lab test to ascertain the bacteria present.The patient must be given lot of fluids to offset the fluid loss and the patient should take complete rest.The next step should be to admit the patient to a hospital.

METAL POISONING:

There are different types of metal poisoning such as arsenic poisoning,lead poisoning,copper poisoning etc...

1.ARSENIC POISONING

The symptoms are a)severe stomach pain b)nausea and vomiting c) burning pain in mouth,throat and stomach d) breath smelling garlic e)Convulsions.The suggested treatment is that the patient should be given plenty of warm water and vomiting should be induced.A vomit sample should be collected for lab test.Then the patient should be admitted to hospital.

2.LEAD POISONING

The symptoms are a) stomach pain b) metallic taste in mouth c) nausea and vomiting d) headache , cramps , drowsiness e) appearance of blue line in gum in severe cases.The suggested treatment is that the patient should be given plenty of water and vomiting should be induced.A vomit sample should be collected for lab test.The patient should then be admitted to hospital.

3.COPPER POISONING

The symptoms are nausea,vomiting,stomach pain,metallic taste in mouth,appearance of green line on gum in severe cases.The treatment is that the patient should be given plenty of water and vomiting should be induced.A vomit sample should be collected for lab test.The patient should then be admitted to hospital.

FARM AND HOME INSECTICIDES AND PESTICIDES POISONING:

The symptoms are

a)nausea

b) vomiting

c)stomach pain

d)tremors

e)smell of insecticide or pesticide in breath

f) dysentery

g)blurring of vision

h)cramps

The treatment is that the patient should be given plenty of water and vomiting should be induced.Administer the antidote mentioned in the insecticide or pesticide brochure if the insecticide is known.A vomit sample should be collected for lab test.The patient should then be admitted to hospital.

CYANIDE POISONING:

The symptoms are foaming in the mouth,nausea,vomiting,headache,convulsions,unconsciousness.The patient should be immediately admitted to hospital.

NAPHTHALENE BALLS(MOTH REPELLENT)POISONING:

The symptoms are stomach pain,nausea,vomiting.The treatment is that the patient should be given plenty of water and vomiting should be induced.A vomit sample should be collected for lab test.The patient should be admitted to hospital.

ETHYL AND METHYL ALCOHOL POISONING:

This is an ingredient in anti-freeze products and paint remover varnish etc...The symptoms are alcohol smelling breath,nausea,vomiting,head ache,double vision,blurring of vision or loss of vision.The treatment is that the patient should be given water and .The patient should then be admitted to hospital.

ACID POISONING:

Hydrochloric acid,nitric acid,Sulphuric acid etc...The symptoms are burns in mouth, lips,throat and stomach,heavy vomiting,intense thirst and shock.The treatment is that the patient should be given water and vomiting SHOULD NOT BE INDUCED.Admit the patient to hospital immediately.

ALKALI POISONING:

Some common alkalies are sodium and potassium hydroxide,bleachers,detergents,ammonia etc...The symptoms are stomach pain,nausea,vomiting,appearance of soapy froth in mouth and white and swollen mouth membrane.The treatment is that the patient should be given water.DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.Admit the person to hospital.

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